Commentary On The Introductory Notes Of Ibn Tamiyyah
In The name of Allah, the Beneficent , the Merciful
*The saying of the author, rahimahuallah; "In the Name of Allah, the Benficent, the Merciful."
*Commencing books with the Basmalah note:(That is; the saying- Bismillah ar-Rahman ar-Rahim- meaning; In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful). is the practice of all the authors, emulating therewith the Book of Allah; since He revealed the Basmalah in the beginning of each Surah (Chapter), and in conformity with the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam.
Moreover, the I'rab (syntax) of the Basmalah, clarifying its meaning, and what it refers to, has been discussed by many people. The best of what has been said regarding that, is that it refers to a verb, which omitted, coming later, and is related to the context. So, if you were to say it before eating, the implication would be: "In the Name of Allah, I eat," and if it is said before reading, the implication would be: "In the Name of Allah, I read."
We consider it (the reference) to be a verb, because actions are based upon verbs, not nouns. And similarly, verbs imply actions, without any condition, while nouns do not imply actions, except with a condition, because actions are based upon verbs, while that are a branch of (the meaning of) nouns.
Furthermore, we consider that it (the reference verb) comes later because of the two beneficial reasons:
The first: Restriction. Because advancing that which is done implies a restriction. Thus, (the saying of) "in the Name of Allah I read," implies: "I do not read except in the Name of Allah."
The second: Starting on the right side with the Name of Allah, Glorious is He and the Most High. Note: (That is; since Arabic is read from right to left, and here, the action is initiated in the Name of Allah, which is written first, on the right, then after it, meaning left of it, comes the verb).
And, we consider it to be specific. Because what is specific better indicates the meaning that what in general. Since we could say that the indication is "In the Name of Allah, I start." But, "in the Name of Allah I start" does not indicate a specific meaning; and what is specific better indicates the meaning than what is general.
"Allah" is a proper noun that is used for Allah himself, the Mighty and Sublime. none can be named with it other than Him. It means that Ma'luh (Deified One), that is; He who is worshipped with love and veneration. It is a derivation according to the preferred view-based upon His, the Most High, statement:
"And He is Allah in the heavens and on the earth, He knows what you conceal and what you reveal."
This is because 'in the heavens' refers back to with the Word of Majesty (the Name Allah). So it means He is the Mu'lah (Deified One), both in the heavens, and on the earth.
*"Ar-Rahman" means the Possessor of Extensive Mercy. Because in the Arabic language, the Fa'lan form indicates extensiveness and fullness. As it is said: "A man Ghadban (meaning angry- in the Fa'lan form), when he is filled up with anger.
*"Ar-Rahim" is a name that indicates the action (of bestowing mercy), because it is the Fa'il form but with the meaning of the doer. so it indicates the action.
Hence, "Ar-Rahman ar-Rahim" will together imply that Allah's Mercy is extensive, and that it reaches creatures. That is what is some Scholars have indicated when they say that Ar-Rahmam refers to Mercy in general, while Ar-Rahman refers to Mercy that is specific for the believers. Therefore, since Allah's Mercy for the disbelievers is specific to this world only, it is as if there is no mercy for them. Because the Hereafter, when the ask Allah to remove them from then fire, appealing to Allah, the Most High. by His Lordship, and confessing against themselves.
"Our Lord! Bring us out of this; if ever we return (to evil), then indeed we shall be unjust/wrongdoers."
They will not meet Mercy, but justice. Then, Allah, the Mighty and Sublime, will say to them:
"Remain you in it with ignominy! And peak you not to Me!"
Transcript from Book 1 (p.47-50)