“Those who sit with me know this about me, I am always one of those who most emphatically forbid describing a specific person (among the Muslims) as a kaafir, faasiq or sinner, unless it is Known That Shariah Proof Has Been Established Against Him, and it has been proven whether he is a kaafir, a faasiq or a sinner.”

Shaykh Ibn Taymiyyah (Rahimahullaahu Ta’aala)

Majmoo’ al-Fataawa (3/229)

Saturday, January 10, 2015

(Part One) Existence of Allah

It (creed) entails Iman (faith) in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Resurrection, after death, and faith in Al-Qadar- its good and its bad.

*Concerning His statement: "It (creed) entails Iman (faith) in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Resurrection, after death, and faith in Al-Qadar- its good and its bad."

The Commentary

The Prophet established this creed for us in reply to Jibril, when he asked the Prophet"What is Islam?" "What is Iman?" "What is Ihsan?" "When will the Hour be?" Regarding Iman, he replied: "That you believe in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Last Day and Al-Qadar, its good and its bad." (Reported by Muslim (8) from the narration of' 'Umar bin Al-Khattab, (radiyallahu anhu).

*Faith in Allah:" As for the meaning of Iman linguistically; many people say that Iman it is At-Tasdiq (trust). As a result, 'I trust and 'I believe mean the same thing linguistically. Also, we have earlier mentioned in the commentary on the Qur'an, that this statement is incorrect. Rather, Iman linguistically means approving something out of trust in it, due to the evidence that you say: "Amantu bi kadha (I believe in this)" and "Aqratu bi kadha (I approve of this)" and "Sadaqtu fulanan (I trust So- and -So)." And you do not say "Amantu fulanan (I have faith, So-and -So)."

Therefore, Iman is more comprehensive than mere trust. It is approving and acknowledgement, that necessitate accepting the narrations and submission to the rulings. This is Iman; but as for just having faith that Allah exists this is not Iman-not until it leads you to accepting the narrations and submitting to the rulings. If not, then it is not Iman.

Having Iman in Allah includes four things:

1. The belief in the existence of Allah, Glorious is He and Exalted.
2. The belief in His sole (right of) Rububiyyah Lordship.
3. The belief in His sole (right of) Uluhiyyah (Divinity).
4.The belief in His Names and Attributes.

Iman will not be established except with (all of ) that.

So, whoever does not believe in the existence of Allah, then he is not a believer. Whoever believes in the existence of Allah, and not His sole right of Lordship, then he is not a believer. Whoever believes in  Allah and His sole right of Lordship, but not in His sole right of Uluhiyyah (divinity)  , then he is not a believer. Whoever believes in Allah, His sole right of Lordship, and Uluhiyyah (divinity), but does not believe in His Names and Attributes, then he is not a believer. Even if there is in the last (category) those who are completely stripped of Iman, and therein whose Iman is only incomplete.

Having Faith in His existence:

If someone says: "What is the proof of the existence of Allah, the Almighty and Sublime?"

We reply that the evidence for Allah's existence are: The 'Aql (intellect), the senses, and the Shari'ah. All three prove the existence of Allah. If you like, you can add the Fitrah (innate disposition). Therefore, the proofs of Allah's existence are four: The 'Aql, the senses, the Fitrah and the Shari'ah. Also, we have mentioned the textual evidences (Shari'ah) last, not because it is not worthy of being mentioned first; rather because we are addressing he who does not believe in the Shari'ah.

As for the evidences from intellect, we ask: Do all these creatures exist by themselves, or by chance?

If you say, they exists by themselves; this is rationally impossible, it was first non-existent, so how can something exist when it was non-existent?! The non-existent is nothing until it exists, then it is not able to bring itself to existence.

If you say also say the exist by chance, then we say is also impossible O denying one! All things produced, like planes, rockets, vehicles and other forms of machinery, do they exist by chance? He would (definitely) reply that this is not possible; in the same way, it is not possible. (If that is not possible); in the same way, it is not possible, whatsoever, that birds, mountains, the sun, the moon, the stars, the trees, coal, sand, the seas and other than that, exist by chance.

It was said, that a group of As-Sumaniyyah, who are from the people of India, came to Imam Abu Hanifah (rahimahullah). So they debated with him regarding the existence of the Creator, the Mighty and Sublime. Imam Abu Hanifah, a very intelligent scholar, made an appointment with them saying that they should come back after a day or two. So they came back; (and) said: "What do you say?" He said:"I thought about a ship full of freight and provisions, which sailed the sea, docked uploaded what it carried, and left, and it also had no captain and no dock workers."

They replied: "You thought of this?!" Hr replied: "Yes." They said: "Then you have no intellect! Is it imaginable that a ship sail without a captain, unload itself and leave?! This is unintelligible!' He said: "How is it that you can not comprehend this, yet you reason that these heavens, the sun, the moon, the stars, the mountains, the trees, the animals and people, all exists without a Maker?!" They realized that this man was addressing them by suing their own sense of reason, and that they were incapable of giving any reply to this nor its meaning.

A Bedouin Arab was asked: "With what did you know your lord?" He replied: "The tracks indicate the direction of the journey, while the dung indicates a camel. So, heavens possessing of such towers, ans the earth with such paths, and the sea with such waves-would that not indicate (the existence of) the All-Hearing and the Allah-Seeing."

For this reason, Allah, the Mighty and Sublime, said:

"Were they created by nothing, or were they themselves the creators?" (At-Tur 52:35)

Therefore the intellect, firmly and unequivocally , indicates the existence of Allah.

The evidence from the senses concerning Allah's existence; then indeed the human calls upon Allah, the Mighty and Sublime, saying: "O my Lord!" asking for something, then his prayer is answered. This is  a sensible proof. He himself (the one who denies the existence of Allah, the Most high) did not call on anyone except Allah, and Allah granted his request. He witnessed this with his own eyes! We also hear about those who have past, and those in our time. whose requests Allah has granted.

While the Messenger was delivering a sermon to the people on Friday, a Bedouin entered the Masjid, and said: "The wealth has been destroyed and the roads have been cut off! Ask Allah to provide rain for us." Anas said: "By Allah there was no cloud in the sky, not even a Qaz'ah- meaning a piece of cloud- and there was no house nor home between us and Sal'- a mountain in Al-Madinah, from whose direction clouds come ....Immediately after the supplication of the Messenger , there came a cloud like a shield, which rose up to the heavens, spread , thundered, issued lightening, and it started raining. Thus, the Messenger did not come descend (from the Minbar) except with rain dripping from his beard .  (Reported by Al-Bukhari 1033, and Muslim 8977 from the narration of Anas, radiyallahu anhu).

This is an obvious occurrence, which proves the existence of the Creator based upon the senses.

Incidents like this abound in the Qur'an; for example:

"And remember Ayoub when he cried to his Lord: "Verily, distress has seized me, and You are the Most Merciful of all those who show mercy," So We answered his call." (Al-Anbiya' 21:83-84)

As for the proof of the Fitrah; indeed many people, whose Fitrah has not been deviated, believe in the existence of Allah. Even animals without intelligence believe in the existence of Allah. And the story of the ant, which was narrated from Sulaiman (alayhi wa Sallam), (is an example). He came to beg (Allah) for water. Then, he found an ant lying down on its back, raising its legs towards the heavens saying: "O Allah, I am a creature from among Your creatures, do not deny us your provisions of water." He then said (to his followers): "Go back, water was asked to be provided to you by the supplication of another (creature)."  (Ad-Durr Al-Manthur As-Suyuti has attributed it to Ani Shaibah, Ahmad in Az-Zuhd and Ibn Hatim from Abu As-Siddiq An-Naji. See Ijtima' Al-Juyush by Ibn al-Qayyim (221-228).

This verse proves that man is inclined by his Fitrah to testify to the existence of Allah and His Lordship. Whether we say that Allah brought them out of Adam's back and made them testify, or we say this is what Allah, the Most High and Sublime, has put acknowledgement of this in their Fitrah. Hence, this is a (clear) proof that man knows his Lord by his Fitrah.

These are four evidences of the existence of Allah, Glorious is He and Exalted.

As for the evidence of the Shari'ah, the whatever the Messengers came with from Allah's Shari'ah, containing all of what is beneficial for creation, it also proves that He Who sent it is a Lord, Merciful and Wise. This is particularly so regarding this Majestic Qur'an, making it impossible for mankind and Jinns to produce its like.

Al-'Aqidah Al-Wasitiyyah Book 1 (pg 71-77)

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